AquiferA rock layer with enough space between its grains to allow water to flow relatively freely. A subsurface rock or sediment unit that is porous and permeable. To be an aquifer it must have these traits to a high enough degree that it stores and transmits useful quantities of water. An artesian aquifer is bounded above and below by impermeable rock or sediment layers. The water in the aquifer is also under enough pressure that, when the aquifer is tapped by a well, the water rises up the well bore to a level that is above the top of the aquifer. The water may or may not flow onto the land surface. In contrast, an unconfineed aquifer is not overlain by an impermeable rock unit. The water in this aquifer is under atmospheric pressure and is recharged by precipitation that falls on the land surface directly above the aquifer.